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【英国の地名の由来(2) 実際の地名について】



Some British Place Names and Their Meanings


If you are feeling bored and would like to try something new, why don’t you open an online map, an atlas, or a map of the United Kingdom—if you have one—and look for some of these place names. Perhaps you will even be able to identify the feature that gave it its name.


A word of caution: these explanations refer to places in the United Kingdom, and some in Ireland.


Although many of the same place names can be found in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa, they may not have the original meaning. Those names were given to new towns, settlements or areas that English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish travellers, discoverers and settlers visited or moved to in the last 400 years.


Many people at that time would not have known the original meanings of the names of towns or other places back home. They often used names from their homelands, perhaps to honour a place or a person that the place reminded them of. For example, there may indeed be a hill, a river or other feature.


Have fun exploring!


Term Language Meaning Sample Place Name
afon Pictish, Cornish, Welsh River Glanyafon,Stratford-on-Avon
ar, ard Irish, Gaelic Height Ardglass, Armagh
ash Old English Ash tree Ashton-under-Lyne
axe (exe, usk) Celtic Water Axminster, Exeter
-ay, -ey, -y Old Norse Island Orkney
bal, ball, balla, bally(baile now means town, while abhaile means homeward)  Irish, Gaelic Farm, homestead Balmoral, Ballymena
beck Old English, Old Norse Stream Troutbeck, Beckton
bourne, burn Old English Stream Eastbourne
bre (brea) Cumbric, Welsh Cornish Hill Carn Brea
bury, borough, brough, burgh Old English Fortified enclosure Highbury, Canterbury,Edinburgh,Middlesborough
by Old Norse Village, settlement Derby
caer Cumbric, Welsh Fort Caerleon
carden Pictish Thicket Cardenden
cester (caster, chester, ceter) Latin camp or fortification Chesterfield,Cirencester
cheap, chipping Old English Market Cheapside, Chipping Campden
coed Welsh Wood, forest Betws-y-coed
combe Old English Valley Winchcombe
cot, cott Old English, Welsh Cottage (small home) Ascot
cwm Welsh Valley Cwmbran
dal Irish, Gaelic Meadow Dalmellington
dale Old English, Old Norse Valley, allotment Wensleydale
din Welsh Fort Dinas
don, den Old English Hill Abingdon
drum (druim) Irish, Gaelic Back, ridge Drumchapel
dun (dum) Irish, Gaelic Fort Dundee, Dungannon
field Old English Open land Hatfield
firth Old English Wood Holmfirth
firth Old Norse Inlet, fjord Firth of Forth
ford Old English Ford, crossing Watford, Dartford, Guildford
forth Old English Bridge, crossing Ampleforth
gate Old Norse Road Harrogate
glen Irish, Gaelic Narrow valley Glen Coe, Rutherglen
ham Old English Homestead Birmingham, Tottenham, Buckingham
hithe Old English Landing place Rotherhithe,Hyhe
holm Old English Island Holmfirth
hurst Old English Wooded hill Midhurst
ing Old English People of Reading, Epping
kil (from cill) Irish, Gaelic Church or monastic cell Kilkenny, Kilmarnock
kin (from ceann) Irish, Gaelic Head Kincardine
king Old Norse, Old English king, leader Kingston
kirk Old Norse Church Ormskirk
lan, llan, lhan Cumbric, Cornish, Pictish Church, village with a church Llandudno, Llangollen
le (lès) Norman French Near to Barton-le-Clay
lea, ley, leigh Old English Woodland clearing Leafield, Camberley
magna Latin Great Appleby Magna
mere Old English Lake, pool Windermere, Halzelmere
minster Old English Large church Westminster
mynydd Welsh Mountain Mynydd-bach
nan, nans Cornish Valley Nantsallon
ness Old Norse, Old English Headland Furness
parva Latin Little Appleby Parva
pool     Liverpool
pont Latin, Welsh, Cornish Bridge Pontypool
porth Cornish, Welsh Harbour Porthcawl
shep, ship Old English Sheep Shepton Mallet, Shipley
stan Old English Stony Stanmore
stead Old English Place, enclosure Hemel Hempstead
stoke Old English Dependent farmstead Basingstoke
stow Old English Holy place Stow-on-the-Wold, Stowmarket
strath Irish, Gaelic Wide valley Strathclyde
street Latin, Old English Roman road Chester-le-Street
thwaite Old Norse Forest clearing with a dwelling Braithwaite
weald, wold Old English High woodland Southwold, Wealdstone
wick, wich, wych,wyke Old English, Latin Settlement, place Ipswich
wick Old Norse Bay Warwick, Berwick-upon-Tweed
worth, worthy Old English Enclosure Tamworth, Kenilworth
ynys Welsh Island Ynys Mon (Anglesey)
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